Independent validation, proven results

At Mimic, we understand that independent validation is of utmost importance to our customers. We are proud to say that the dV-Trainer® has demonstrated face, content, construct, and concurrent validity in multiple studies. More recently, studies have concluded that the dV-Trainer® is comparable to dry-lab training on the da Vinci® robot (concurrent validity), and efforts are underway to assess the predictive validity of the simulator.

Search for a Study by year, publication, institution or validity.

Validation Definitions:
Face: Realistic look and feel   Content: Useful as a training tool   Construct: Ability to distinguish between Novice and Expert users    Concurrent: Compares to a similar or related construct (Dry Labs, Tissue Lab, etc.)  Predictive: Predicts actual performance in the O.R.

Published StudyDatePublicationAuthorsInstitutionConfirmed validity
Face and Content Validity of Xperience™ Team Trainer: Bed-side Assistant Training Simulator for Robotic Surgery2018Update in SurgerySessa L, Perrenot C, Xu S, Hubert J, Bresler L, Brunaud L, Perez MLoraine UniversityFace, Content
Correlation of Virtual Reality Simulation and Dry Lab Robotic Technical Skills 2018Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology Laura K. Newcomb MD, Megan S. Bradley MD, Tracy Truong MS, Michelle Tang, Bryan Comstock MS, Yi-Ju Li PhD, Anthony G. Visco MD, Nazema Y. Siddiqui MD, MHScDuke University Medical Centre Training Methodology
Distribution of Innate Psychomotor Skills Recognized as Important for Surgical Specialization in Unconditioned Medical Undergraduates 2018Surgical EndoscopyAndrea Moglia, Luca Morelli, Vincenzo Ferrari, Mauro Ferrari, Franco Mosca, Alfred CuschieriEndoCAS, PIsaOther
Residency Training in Robotic General Surgery: A Survey of Program Directors2018Minimally Invasive SurgeryLea C. George, Rebecca O’Neill, and Aziz M. MerchantRutgers New Jersey Medical SchoolTraining Methodology
A Comparative Analysis and Guide To Virtual Reality Robotic Surgical Simulators
2018Int J Med Robotics Comput Assist Surg. Danielle Julian, Alyssa Tanaka, Patricia Mattingly, Mireille Truong, Manuela Perez, Roger SmithFlorida Hospital, Virginia Commonwealth University Comparison
Head-to-Head Comparison of Three Virtual-Reality Robotic Surgery Simulators
2018Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons Alexandria M. Hertz, MD, Evalyn I. George, BS, Christine M. Vaccaro, DO, Timothy C. Brand, MD Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington, Face, Content, Comparison
From dV-Trainer to Real Robotic Console: The Limitations of Robotic Skill Training2017Journal of Surgical Education Kun Yang, MD, PhD, Hang Zhen, MD, Nicolas Hubert, MD, Manuela Perez, MD, PhD, Xing Huan Wang, MD, PhD, Jacques Hubert, MDLoraine University Training Methodology
Competency Based Training in Robotic Surgery: Benchmark Scores for Virtual Reality Robotic Simulation2017British Journal of Urology International Nicholas Raison, Kamran Ahmed, Nicola Fossati, Nicolo Buffi, Alexandre Mottrie, Prokar Dasgupta, and Henk Van Der PoelKings College London Other
Mastery-Based Virtual Reality Robotic Simulation Curriculum: The First Step Toward Operative Robotic Proficiency
2017Journal of Surgical Education Melissa E. Hogg, MD, MS, Vernissia Tam, MD, Mazen Zenati, MD, PhD, Stephanie Novak, MS, Jennifer Miller, MD, Amer H. Zureikat, MD, Herbert J. Zeh III, MDUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical Centre Training Methodology
Evaluation of Different Time Schedules in Training with the da Vinci Simulator
2017Surgical Endoscopy Christian Güldner, Annik Orth, Philipp Otto Georg Dworschak, Isabell Diogo, Magis Mandapathil, Afshin Teymoortash, Ute Walliczek-Dworschak University of Marburg Training Methodology
Setting Benchmarks for the New User: Training on the Robotic Simulator
2017Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
Shayan M. Dioun, MD, Nicole D. Fleming, MD, Mark F. Munsell, BA, Joseph Lee, MD, Pedro T. Ramirez, MD, Pamela T. Soliman, MD
University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston
A Comparison of Robotic Simulation Performance on Basic Virtual Reality Skills: Simulator Subjective Versus Objective Assessment Tools
2017Journal of Mimimally invasive Gynecology Ariel K. Dubin, MD, Roger Smith, PhD, Danielle Julian, MS, Alyssa Tanaka, PhD, Patricia Mattingly, MDColumbia university Medical Centre, Florida Hospital Nicholson Centre Other
Robotic Training in General Surgery Residency: How Early Can We Begin?
2016Journal of Surgery and Surgical ResearchAntonio Gangemi, Theresa Dunham, Federico Gheza, Gian Maria Contino, Pier Cristoforo GiulianottiUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoTraining Methodology
Robotic Surgery Simulation Validity and Usability Comparative Analysis2016Surgical EndoscopyTanaka A, Graddy C, Simpson K, Perez M, Truong M, Smith RFlorida Hospital Nicholson Center,Face, Content, Construct
A New System for Evaluation of Armrest Use in Robotic Surgery and Validation of a New Ergonomic Concept – Armrest Load2016Int J Med RobotYang K, Perez M, Perrenot C, Hubert N, Felblinger J, Hubert JLoraine UniversityTraining Methodology
The Impact of a Simulation-Based Training Lab on Outcomes of Hysterectomy2016Journal of the Turkish German Gynecologic AssociationMehmet Re?it Aso?lu, Tamar Achjian, O?uz Akbilgiç, Mostafa A. Borahay, Gökhan S. K?l?ç
Effectiveness of an Integrated Video Recording and Replaying System in Robotic Surgical Training2016Journal of Urology
Kun Yang, MD; Manuela Perez, PhD; Nicolas Hubert, MD; Gabriela Hossu, Phd; Cyril Perrenot, MD; Jacques Hubert, MDWuhan UniversityTraining Methodology
Impact of Delay on Telesurgical Performance: Study on the Robotic Simulator dV-Trainer2016Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg.Perez M, Xu S, Chauhan S, Tanaka A, Simpson K, Abdul-Muhsin H, Smith R
A Systematic Review of Virtual Reality Simulators for Robot-assisted Surgery2015European UrologyAndrea Moglia , Vincenzo Ferrari , Luca Morelli , Mauro Ferrari , Franco Mosca and Alfred CuschieriENDOCAS PisaComparison
Comparative Analysis of the Functionality of Simulators of the da Vinci® Surgical Robot2015Surgical EndoscopySmith R., Truong M., Perez M.Florida Hospital Nicholson Center,Comparison
Construction of a Urologic Robotic Surgery Training Curriculum:?How Many Simulator Sessions Are Required for Residents to Achieve Proficiency?2015The Journal of Endourologycott Wiener, MD, Peter Haddock, PhD, Steven Shichman, MD, and Ryan Dorin, MDHartford Hospitaltraining Methodology
Comparison of da Vinci® Skills Simulator and dV-Trainer as a Training Tool in Robotic Surgery2015Progrès en UrologieHubert, M. Perezb, C. Perrenotb, Y. Kunb, Iadi b, S. XubLoraine UniversityConcurrent
Pilot Validation Study of the European Association of Urology Robotic Training Curriculum2015European UrologyAlessandro Volpe, Kamran Ahmed, Prokar Dasgupta, Vincenzo Ficarra, Giacomo Novara, Henk van der Poel, Alexandre MottrieOLV Vattikuti Robotic Surgery InstituteTraining Methodology
Impact of Current Video Game Playing on Robotic Simulation Skills Among Medical Students2015Turkish-German Gynecological AssociationTufan Öge, Mostafa A. Borahay, Tamar Achjian, Sami Gökhan K?l?çTurkeyOther
Comparison of Two Simulation Systems to Support Robotic-Assisted Surgical Training: A Pilot Study (Swine Model)2015The Journal of Minimally Invasive GynecologySabrina V. Whitehurst, MD, Ernest G. Lockrow, DO*, Thomas S. Lendvay, MD,?Anthony M. Propst, MD, Susan G. Dunlow, MD, Christopher J. Rosemeyer, DO,?Joseph M. Gobern, MD, Lee W. White, PhD, Anna Skinner, PhD, and Jerome L. Buller, MDUniformed Services UniversityTraining Methodology
Robotic Simulators: A Case for the Return on Investment2014The Journal of Minimally Invasive GynecologyRoger D Smith, PhD; Khara M. Simpson, MDFlorida Hospital Nicholson Center,Other
Comparison of Quality Outcome Measures in Patients Having a Hysterectomy for Benign Disease2014The Journal of Minimally Invasive GynecologyMartin A Martino, MD; Elizabeth A Berger, DO; Jeffrey T. McFetrdige, MS; Jocelyn Shubella, BS; Gabrielle Gosniek, BA; Taylor Wejkszner, BA; Gregory F.Kainz, DO; Jeremy Partiacco, BS; M. Bijoy Thomas, MD; Richard Boulay, MD Leheigh Vallley NetworkOther
Determination of the Latency Effects on Surgical Performance and the Acceptable Latency Levels in Telesurgery Using the dV-Trainer Simulator2014Surgical EndoscopyXu S, Perez M, Yang K, Perrenot C, Felblinger J, Hubert JLoraine UniversityOther
Effect of Latency Training on Surgical Performance in Simulated Robotic Telesurgery Procedures2014Int J Med RobotXu S, Perez M, Yang K, Perrenot C, Felblinger J, Hubert JLoraine UniversityOther
Predictive Validity of a Training Protocol Using a Robotic Surgery Simulator2014Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive SurgeryPatrick Culligan, MD; Emil Gurshumov, MD; Christa Lewis, DO; Jennifer Priestley, PhD; Jodie Koma, BSN; Charbel Salamon, MDMorristownPredicative
Guidelines for Privileging for Robotic-Assisted Gynecologic Laparoscopy2014The Journal of Minimally Invasive GynecologyAAGLTacomaPrivelaging & Credentialing
Distribution of Innate Ability for Surgery Amongst Medical Students Assessed by an Advanced Virtual Reality Surgical Simulator2013Surgical EndoscopyAndrea Moglia, Vincenzo Ferrari, Luca Morelli, Franca Melfi, Mauro Ferrari, Franco Mosca, Alfred CuschieriENDOCAS PisaOther
A Pilot Study of Surgical Training Using a Virtual Robotic Surgery Simulator2013Society of Laparoendoscopic SurgeonsTergas AI, Sheth SB, Green IC, Giuntoli RL, Winder AD, Fader ANJohns HopkinsConcurrent, Predicative
Prior Experience in Micro-surgery May Improve the Surgeon’s Performance in Robotic Surgical Training2013Int J Med RobotPerez M, Perrenot C, Tran N, Hossu G, Felblinger J, Hubert JLoraine UniversityTraining Methodology
Comparative Assessment of Three Standardized Robotic Surgery Training Methods2013BJU InternationalAndrew J. Hung, Isuru S. Jayaratna, Kara Teruya, Mihir M. Desai, Inderbir S. Gill, Alvin C. GohMethodist Hospital HoustonTraining Methodology
Modular Comparison of Laparoscopic and Robotic Simulation Platforms in Residency Training: A Randomized Trial2013Journal of Minimally Invasive GynecologyMostafa A. Borahay, MD; Mary C. Haver, MD; Benjamin Eastham, MD; Pooja R. Patel, MD; and Gokhan S. Kilic, MDUniverity of Texastraining Methodology
Validation of a Simulation Tool to Support Robotic-Assisted Surgical Training2013Journal of Minimally Invasive GynecologySabrina Whitehurst, MD; Ernest Lockrow, DO; Thomas S Lendvay, MD; Joseph M. Gobern, MD; Anthony Skinner, MD; J.L. Buller, MDUniversity of WahingtonTraining Methodology
Virtual Reality Robotic Surgery Warm-Up Improves Task Performance in a Dry Laboratory Environment: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study2013Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Lendvay TS, Brand TC, White L, Kowalewski T, Jonnadula S, Mercer LD, Khorsand D, Andros J, Hannaford B, Satava RMUniversity of WahingtonConcurrent
Using Simulators to Measure Communication Latency Effects in Robotic Telesurgery2012Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education ConferenceRoger Smith, Sanket Chauhan Florida Hospital Nicholson Center,Other
da Vinci Skills Simulator Construct Validation Study: Correlation of Prior Robotic Experience With Overall Score and Time Score Simulator Performance2012UrologyKyle T. Finnegan, Anoop M. Meraney, Ilene Staff, and Steven J. Shichman Hartford HospitalConstruct
The Virtual Reality Simulator dV-Trainer is a Valid Assessment Tool for Robotic Surgical Skills2012Surgical EndoscopyCyril Perrenot, Manuela Perez, Nguyen Tran, Jean-Philippe Jehl, Jacques Felblinger, Laurent Bresler, Jacques HubertNancy UniversityFace, Content, Construct, Concurrent
Validation, Correlation, and Comparison of the da Vinci Trainer and the da Vinci Surgical Skills Simulator Using the Mimic Software for Urologic Robotic Surgical Education2012Journal of EndourologyMichael A. Liss, Corollos Abdelshehid, Stephen Quach, Achim Lusch, Joseph Graversen, Jaime Landman, Elspeth McDougallUCIFace, Content, Construct
Robotic Surgery Training with Commercially Available Simulation Systems in 2011: A Current Review and Practice Pattern Survey from the Society of Urologic Robotic Surgeons2012Journal of EndourologyCostas D. Lallas, John W. Davis, and Members of the Society of Urologic Robotic SurgeryUniversity of PhiledelphiaComparison
Concurrent and Predictive Validation of a Novel Robotic Surgery Simulator2012Journal of UrologyAndrew J. Hung, Mukul B. Patil, Pascal Zehnder, Jie Cai, Casey K. Ng, Monish Aron, Inderbir S. Gill and Mihir M. DesaiUSCConcurrent, Predicative
Validating the Use of the Mimic dV-Trainer for Robotic Surgery Skill Acquisition Among Urology Residents2011UrologyKorets R, Mues AC, Graversen JA, Gupta M, Benson MC, Cooper KL, Landman J, Badani KKColumbia UniversityFace, Construct, Concurrent
A Study on the Learning Curve of the Robotic Virtual Reality Simulator2011Journal of Laparoendoscopic and Advanced Surgical Techniques
Kang SG, Yang KS, Ko YH, Kang SH, Park HS, Lee JG, Kim JJ, Cheon JKorea Univesity School of MedecineTraining Methodology
Navigating Credentialing, Privileging, and Learning Curves in Robotics With an Evidence and Experienced-Based Approach2011Clinical Obstetrics and GynecologyJOHN P. LENIHAN, Jr, MD, FACOGTacomaPrivelaging & Credentialing
Face, Content and Construct Validity of a Novel Robotic Surgery Simulator2011Journal of UrologyAndrew J. Hung, Mukul B. Patil, Pascal Zehnder, Jie Cai, Casey K. Ng, Monish Aron, Inderbir S. Gill and Mihir M. DesaiUSCFace, Content, Construct
Face, Content and Construct Validity of a Novel Robotic Surgery Simulator2011Journal of UrologyAndrew J. Hung,* Pascal Zehnder, Mukul B. Patil, Jie Cai, Casey K. Ng, Monish Aron, Inderbir S. GillUSCFace, Content, Construct
Validation of a Novel Virtual Reality Robotic Simulator2009Validation of a Novel Virtual Reality Robotic SimulatorAmanjot S. Sethi, MD; William J. Peine, PhD; Yousef Mohammadi, BS; and Chandru P. Sundaram, MDIndiana UniversityContent
Face, Content, and Construct Validity of dV-Trainer, a Novel Virtual Reality Simulator for Robotic Surgery2009UrologyKenney PA, Wszolek MF, Gould JJ, Libertino JA, Moinzadeh ALahey ClinicFace, Content, Construct
Initial Validation of a Virtual-Reality Robotic Simulator2008Journal of Robotic SurgeryThomas S. Lendvay, Pasquale Casale,  Robert Sweet, Craig Peters University of WahingtonFace