Schreuder 2014

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Validation of a Novel Virtual Reality Simulator for Robotic Surgery

Henk W. R. Schreuder, Jan E. U. Persson, Richard G. H. Wolswijk, Ingmar Ihse, Marlies P. Schijven, and René H. M. Verheijen



With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA) for the use in training of robot-assisted surgery.


A comparative cohort study was performed. Participants () were divided into three groups according to their robotic experience. To determine construct validity, participants performed three different exercises twice. Performance parameters were measured. To determine face validity, participants filled in a questionnaire after completion of the exercises.


Experts outperformed novices in most of the measured parameters. The most discriminative parameters were “time to complete” and “economy of motion” (). The training capacity of the simulator was rated 4.6 ± 0.5 SD on a 5-point Likert scale. The realism of the simulator in general, visual graphics, movements of instruments, interaction with objects, and the depth perception were all rated as being realistic. The simulator is considered to be a very useful training tool for residents and medical specialist starting with robotic surgery.


Face and construct validity for the dV-Trainer could be established. The virtual reality simulator is a useful tool for training robotic surgery.

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