Predictive validation of a robotic virtual reality simulator: The Tube 3 module for practicing vesicourethral anastomosis in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy
Ji Sung Shim, Tae Il Noh, Jae Yoon Kim, Jong Hyun Pyun, Seok Cho, Mi M iOh, Seok Ho Kang, Jun Cheon, Jeong Gu Lee, Je Jong Kim, Sung Gu Kang
To predict actual performance in real surgery when vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA) is performed in patients after Tube 3 module training of robot-naive surgeons.
Forty-five patients were enrolled and divided into three groups according to chronological trends (each containing 15 patients). Three robot-naive surgeons in a single center completed VUA in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) following robotic virtual reality simulator (RVRS) training. The practicing tool used in RVRS was Tube 3, which was invented for the dV-Trainer that imitates a VUA in RARP. The effects of performance were investigated by analyzing the number of repetitions and the time required to complete the task until achieving the predetermined proficiency level.
The targeted time (predetermined proficiency level) for completing tasks of Tube 3 and the number of required task repetitions to achieve the proficiency level were 283.1 s and 36 times, respectively, whereas in actual VUA procedures, the number of required attempts was 24, with an average time of 14.9 minutes. The mean time for completing VUA in real surgery significantly decreased with serial cases among all surgeons (1–15 vs. 16–30 vs. 31–45 cases, P<0.001), as well as comparisons between groups (P<0.001). Conclusions
The Tube 3 module can represent a valuable educational tool for procedure-specific robotic training by bridging the gap between safe acquisition of surgical skills and effective performance during actual VUA in RARP.